Scripture References:

  • Philippians 2:1-11
  • 1 Peter 2:5

Basic Beliefs:

  • Martin Luther argued that a Christian is both “the most free lord of all, and subject to none” while also “the most dutiful servant of all, and subject to everyone.”
  • The church is a “holy priesthood” (1 Peter 2:5)
  • Luther described Christians as “worthy to appear before God, to pray for others, and to teach one another” the things of God.
  • After one is baptized, the Christian is essentially made a priest, one who stands before God, has direct and equal access to God, and can pray to God without someone to stand as a mediator between them and God.
  • This also gives each Christian the power and right to voice convictions within the church, interpret Scripture for personal living, and lead a life of devotion to God.
  • While all of that is true, it is still important that the Christian be involved in Christian fellowship, corporate and individual worship, and selfless service to others.
  • Connections with the church help us to stay on track and not just make our own assumptions about what the Bible says without deep Biblical understanding.
  • As a priest, we each have status within the church, but we are also each called to pray for one another, minister to each other, and serve our neighbors.
  • This affects the way we serve communion.
  • It also has caused us to lose focus on confession of sins as Protestants.

Other Denominations’ Beliefs

  • Quakers
    • Dissolved the clergy altogether
    • Feel as though clergy is not needed, because everyone is a priest and has the role of preaching and proclaiming the Gospel.
  • United Methodist Church
    • “Through baptism, God calls and commissions persons to the general ministry of all Christian believers…We exercise our calling as Christians by prayer, by witnessing to the good news of salvation in Christ, by caring for and serving other people, and by working toward reconciliation, justice, and peace in the world. This is the universal priesthood of all believers.” (
  • All Protestant Churches
    • There is an emphasis on the priesthood of all believers in each of the Protestant churches. This may look a little different in each of the denominations but it is going to be very similar because they all stem from the Protestant Reformation of which Martin Luther was a part.
  • Catholics
    • Priests are required to perform the ceremony of the Eucharist (communion), take confession, and anoint the sick.
    • Priests act as an intermediary between the church and God.